Key Research Findings and Supporting Studies
Diamond CARE pet foods are designed based on proven research and carefully curated studies. This document is a synopsis of the key findings that guided the formulation of Diamond CARE Urinary Support Formula for Adult Cats.
Feline lower urinary tract disease is common in household cats.
According to Nationwide Pet Insurance, bladder or urinary tract disease is the number one reason cats visited the veterinarian in 2017.1
Nutritional management is recommended to manage FIC (feline idiopathic cystitis), struvite crystals and calcium oxalate crystals.2
In cats, urine characteristics and composition are directly related to diet.3
Reducing urine pH helps support a healthy urinary tract.
To prevent struvite crystals in cats, a reduced pH is recommended.2
Struvite crystal formation can be controlled by reducing urine pH, which interferes with the ability of phosphate ions to bind with magnesium in the urine.4
Feline urine pH can be lowered by adding acidifying agents to the diet.5
Controlled mineral content helps reduce minerals in the urine to prevent crystal and stone formation.
Cats fed foods higher in magnesium have shown an increased risk of struvite uroliths.6
Foods high in phosphorus have been associated with increased incidence of struvite urolithiasis.6
Omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources have anti-inflammatory effects throughout the body.
For management of feline lower urinary tract disease, the recommended range of total dietary omega-3 fatty acids is 0.35 to 1.0% DM.2
Long-chain fatty acids such as EPA and DHA have powerful anti-inflammatory properties.2
EPA and DHA are incorporated into the cell membranes in the urinary bladder, where they may alter production of inflammatory mediators present in cases of bladder inflammation.2
Antioxidants help support a healthy immune system.
Vitamin E in the diet reduces circulating alkenals (markers of oxidation, which damages healthy cells).7
Dietary vitamin E supplementation supports the function of lymphocytes.8 Antioxidants may help prevent urolith formation in cats.2
- Most common medical conditions that prompt veterinary visits. Nationwide Insurance Blog. 2018; Mar 14. https://blog.nationwide.com/news/reasons-to-take-pets-to-the-vet/.
- Hand MS, et al. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition, 5th ed. Topeka, KS: Mark Morris Institute; 2010. p. 924–967.
- Burger IH, Smith PM. Effects of diet on the urine characteristics of the cat. In: Edney ATB, ed. Nutrition, Malnutrition and Dietetics in the Dog and Cat: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1987 Sept 3–4; Hanover, Germany. British Veterinary Association U.K. p. 71–73.
- Buffington CA, Rogers QR, Morris JG. Effect of diet on struvite activity product in feline urine. Am J Vet Res. 1990 Dec; 51(12): 2025–2030.
- Skoch ER, Chandler EA, Douglas GM, Richardson DP. Influence of diet on urine pH and the feline urological syndrome. J Small Anim Pract. 1991; 32: 413–419.
- Lekcharoensuk C, Osborne CA, Lulich JP, et al. Association between dietary factors and calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis in cats. J Am Vet Med A. 2001a; 219: 1228–1237.
- Jewell DE, Toll PW, Wedekind KJ, Zicker SC. Effect of dietary antioxidants on concentrations of vitamin E and total alkenals in serum of dogs and cats. Vet Ther. 2005; 1(4): 264–272.
- O’Brien T, Thomas DG, Morel PC, Rutherfurd-Markwick KJ. Moderate dietary supplementation with vitamin E enhances lymphocyte functionality in the adult cat. Res Vet Sci. 2015 Apr; 99: 63–69.